Article by Erin Shrader
Here are a few tips from gettuned.com: When tuning a stringed instrument, always tune from below the note, up. This prevents string breakages and systematizes the process of tuning, so you eventually become familiar with the sound of a perfect, in-tune string. Use the fine tuners when possible. When a fine tuner has been wound right down to the end of the screw, loosen the fine tuner all the way to the end of the screw before carefully tightening the tuning peg. This way, you prevent the string from being over-tightened.
When tuning your violin, play the note continuously with your bow and listen carefully to the string as it tightens towards the desired pitch. Remember, you may need to stop to tune halfway through a practice, especially if you are using new strings, as they tend to stretch and may need tightening from the peg multiple times per practice session for the first few days.
Pro tip: Tune the A string first, followed by the D, G, and then the E string (you can use everything from a pitch pipe to a tuning fork to a smart phone app like Clear Tune). When you start to become more familiar with the sound of the notes of the different strings, try tuning the strings against each other—this is known as relative tuning.